International Braille Chess Association

                  History of the Organization

         Compiled and Equiped with Combinding Texts by

                      Hans-Gerd Schaefer

                  Translated by Julie Leonard


                      C H A P T E R   VI

       Some Useless Information - and a Few Things Worth Knowing

The seven founder members of the International Braille Chess
Association could scarcely have imagined that it would nowadays
have more than fifty blind chess organisations from various
countries as members.  When the organisation was formed in 1958,
there was a chess tournament, in which twelve chess players from
seven countries competed.  Naturally this was not yet on the
scale of the team event that one associates with the chess
Olympiads of today.  It was simply the enjoyment of the "Game of
Kings" that had brought them together.  Even a spacious living
room would have been a sufficiently large venue for the four-day
competition they held then.    

Since then, things have completely changed.  In the last two
blind chess Olympiads in Ca'n Picaforte on Majorca (Spain),
where thirty three teams competed, and in Laguna (Brazil), where
thirty teams took part, there were 150 or more tournament
participants to be accommodated.  And this only included the
chess players!  In addition there were guides, congress
delegates, the committee, the tournament control team and
assistants such as interpreters, making a total of about three
hundred people.  Like all other chess organisations, whether in
Germany or elsewhere, we have to contend with a problem which,
although it is dealt with in a light-hearted way in the
following section, is nevertheless a very real one.   


                      Chess officials.

The widely held view that chess is a sport still holds firm
today.  At the same time, nothing could be easier to dispel as
nonsense.  One has only to touch upon the subject of the
"official".  Let us take a typical sporting example, a
completely normal German football player.  As a rule he plays
from his early youth right through for twenty or twenty-five
years, until he is politely ushered out of his team, with a
degree of firmness that is increased depending on how old he is.

Afterwards, he might knock around with a few older men of the
same age for another couple of years until gout, his grumpy wife
and the feeling of constant annoyance with the referee finally
compel him to hang up both his boots and his sporting ambitions.

And then he becomes an official, for when all is said and done,
he still wants to help the youngsters and make a contribution to
his sport.  

With appropriate modifications, the same is true for volleyball
players, badminton players, shot-putters, figure skaters and
show jumpers.  But not for chess players.  They only really come
into their own as they get older.  They inundate the Open and
later the Veterans tournaments, where they sit around being
quarrelsome and self-opinionated and stay until a ridiculous
hour.  They often linger persistently at the board for far
longer than the six hour playing session stipulated by FIDE,
arguing, analysing, discussing and playing lightning chess,
until one day in the near or distant future, they suffer a
stroke.  Not a single one of them would consider becoming an
official.  So where is the best place for the strange chess
playing community to look for their presidents, treasurers,
controllers and attendants of the future?       

They are definitely not to be found within the chess
organisations any more.  Perhaps advertisements should be placed
in "The Allotment Gardener's Companion" or enquiries should be
made in psychiatric clinics.  The ideal chess official should
either not be a chess player at all, or he should keep his
thoughts of chess so well under control, that nobody notices. 
He must possess the patience of an earthworm and the experience
of a nurse who has had dealings with people who are partly or
totally mad.  When the landlord of the pub where the club meets
starts to heave the chairs onto the tables shortly after
midnight, the club chairman must heartlessly and recklessly pull
the chairs out from under the last stubborn combatants, even
during the most interesting of games.  He must mercilessly throw
the scattered pieces into their boxes and lock away the
equipment paying no attention to the increasingly menacing
insults.  He must apologise to the landlord on bended knee for
the cigarette ash and other mess on the carpet, whilst all the
time wondering what kind of an explanation for returning home at
the crack of dawn he can offer his waiting spouse this time.  As
the association's treasurer or secretary he must bring with him
a professional training as a computer specialist.  As the
president he must lead clueless mayors, local dignitaries or
other patrons by the hand when they are invited to play the
first move.  He must console sobbing ladies who have lost their
games, acquire both the trophies and the sponsors who pay for
them and attend boring committee meetings at which other
officials prattle on endlessly about completely uninteresting

In a word, if one takes it seriously, the ideal chess official
must actually be some sort of crackpot.  So this is the
conclusive explanation for why, as far as one can see there is
simply no such thing as an ideal chess official.  All of them
are chess players and some even have ELO ratings.  Nobody knows
how much they suffer when they see others pondering over their
boards.  Nobody believes them when they declare that this is
absolutely the last time they will stand for re-election. 
Nobody applauds them when the whole thing passes off without
fuss, complaint or a great deal of trouble.  Perhaps one day the
whole of chess organisation will allow itself to be computerised
and digitised.  Then officials will not be needed anymore, but
at most only programs to perform the functions of officials, and
chess will finally have become a respectable sport like


A Best Game Prize was awarded to the following game at the 3rd
Blind Chess Olympiad in Weymouth:

Sandrin (USA)  -  Loftus (Ireland)
III Blind Chess Olympiad 1968 - Round 2

1. d4 Nf6 2. c4 e6 3. Nc3 d5 4. Bg5 Nbd7 5. cxd5 exd5 6. e3
     (6. Nxd5? Nxd5! 7. Bxd8 Bb4)
6. - c6 7. Bd3 Be7 8. Qc2 0-0 9. Nf3 h6?
     (A mistake!  Because Black has already castled and White
has not yet done so.)
10. h4!?
     (Very active, but 10 Bh4 would surely have been safer.)
10. - Re8
     (With 10 - hxg5 11 hxg5 Ne4 12 Bxe4 dxe4 13 Qxe4 g6
     14 Qh4 White wins.)
11. 0-0-0 hxg5
     (11 - Ng4)
12. hxg5 Ne4
     (In case of 12. - Ng4 13. Bh7 Kf8 14. Bf5)
13. Nxe4
     (If 13. Bxe4 dxe4 14. Qxe4 then 14. - Bxg5)
13. - dxe4 14. g6 Nf6
     (In case of 
     [1   14. - exd3 and now
     a)   15. Qc4 Rf8 16. Rh2 Bd6 17. g3     or
     b)   15. gxf7+ Kxf7 16. Qc4+ Kf6 17. g4 and
          Ng5 Kxg5 18. Qe6 White is winning] or
     [2   exf3 15. gxf7+ {or Bc4 wins} Kxf7 16. Bg6+ Ke6 17.
          Qf5+ Kd6 18. Qf4+ Kd5 19. Bf7 mate!])
15. gxf7+
     (or 15. Ne5 fxg6 [15. - Be6? 16. gxf7+ Bxf7 17. Rh8!
     Kxh8 18. Nxf7+] 16. Rh8+ Kxh8 17. Nxf7+ winning the queen)
15. - Kxf7 16. Ne5+ Kg8
     (16. - Ke6 is answered with 17. Bc4+ Nd5 18. Qxe4)
17. Bxe4 Nxe4 18. Qxe4 Bf6
     (18. - Qd5 allows 19. Qg6! Be6 20. Rh7 - and 21. Rdh1)
19. Qh7+
     (Suggestion: 19. Qg6! Bxe5 20. dxe5 Qe7 21. Rh7 Qxe5
     21. Rh7 Qe5 22. Rg7 Qg7 23. Rd8 mate!)
19. - Kf8 20. Qg6 Be6 21. e4! Qc7
     (Possibly better would have been 21. - Qa5 22. a3 Bxe5 23.
Rh5 or
     22. Rd3 Bxe5 23. Qg5! Qd8 24. Rf3+ Bf6 25. e5! or
     22. Rd3 Qxa2 23. Ra3 with an advantage for White.)
22. Rh5 Bxe5?
     (Gives up an important position!
     After 22. - Ke7 23. Qg3 or
     23. Kb1 the situation is unclear.)
23. dxe5 Rad8 24. Rxd8 Qxd8 25. Rh8+ Bg8 26. Qh7 Qg5+ 
27. Kb1 Kf7 28. e6+ Kxe6 29. Rxg8 Kf7 30. Rxe8 Kxe8 31. Qh3
     (and White is winning)
31. - Qd8 32. Qh8+ Kd7 33. Qxg7+
     (33. Qxd8+)
33. - Kc8 34. Qg4+ Kc7 35. Qf4+ Kc8 36. Qg4+ Kc7 37. Qe2 Qh4 
38. a3 Qh1+ 39. Ka2 Qxg2 40. Qe3 Qg8+ 41. Qb3 Qg7 42. Qg3+ Qxg3 
43. fxg3 Kd6 44. g4 Ke5 45. g5 c5 46. a4 b6 47. Kb3 a6 48. Kc4
49. a5

Although the sacrifice cannot be described as completely sound,
the game nevertheless contains many lovely combinations.  For
the players it must have been demanding in the extreme.  Even
for the onlookers the tension was almost unbearable for a while.


In contrast, the next paragraph is once again intended to be
completely serious, for it summarises a little about what the
game and its organisation is based on today.  Chess is an
ancient game, which has developed into a really popular sport
during the last century - a proper people's sport.  Everybody
can learn how to play it and you do not need to be a
mathematician in order to master it well.  In order to enjoy
lasting success, one must of course have a talent and a feel for
the game.  Since 1851 international tournaments have been held,
which popularise the game of chess, promote its reputation and
enrich chess theory.  Beginners and strong players alike make
profitable use of chess literature, with its many interwoven
theoretical supplements.  Admittedly only professional players
are able to gain an overview of the entire catalogue of
literature, as it has become so prolific.  In 1924 the world
chess organisation, the "Fédération International Des checs"
was founded in Paris.  With approximately 150 members at the
present time, FIDE numbers among the largest sports
organisations in the world.  With chess having been popularised
in this way and with its multitude of supporters, it was
inevitable that the game would also reach the visually

                     The history of chess

The game of chess underwent a long course of historical
development before it reached the relatively stable form of the
game that we know today.  Everybody agrees that chess originated
in India, but there is still uncertainty over the date. 
According to the prevailing opinion (Boensch) it originated from
the board game Tshaturanga approximately 2,500 years ago.  It
has been proven that by the 6th century the game had arrived in
Persia (Sharandsh) and from there it spread further west. 
Progressing via Africa, it reached Spain and therefore Europe in
the 8th or 9th century.  It is believed to have spread into
Russia from central Asia.
In terms of its rules the game was played very differently from
the way it is played today.  Efforts to create a quicker and
more dynamic way of playing led to radical rule changes over the
centuries.  The invention of the printing press, which enabled
games that had been played and theoretical analysis to be
publicised more quickly, resulted in a sharp increase in
popularity and a leap forward in the development of the game of
chess.  In 1497 the Spaniard, Lucena published the first printed
chess textbook.

In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, Spanish and Italian
masters defined the fashionable playing style, a direct
combinative attacking approach, bristling with pawn and piece
sacrifices.  In the eighteenth century, chess activity
increasingly shifted towards France and England.  For a long
while the Frenchman, Philidor, was regarded as the best player
and he established a new strategic style of playing chess at
that time.

Howard Staunton was arguably the best player that England has
ever produced.  Between approximately 1840 and 1850 he was
certainly the best player in the world.  In later years he
ranked among the world's top three players together with the
German, Adolf Anderssen, and the American, Paul Morphy.

The founder of the first English chess magazine, "The Chess
Players Chronicle", dedicated himself entirely to his literary
research from about 1860 onwards.  He was an expert on the
literature of the middle ages, Shakespeare's plays in
particular, and it was on account of this that he almost
completely gave up active play.  Howard Staunton died on the
22nd of June 1874 at the age of 64.

The new direction, which led to the development of chess as a
sport, began towards the middle of the nineteenth century.  The
era of tournament chess began with the first international
tournament, which was held in London in 1851.  It was won by the
German, Adolf Anderssen, from Breslau.  In 1866 the victor lost
a match against Wilhelm Steinitz, who was to be proclaimed the
first World Champion following his match win against Johannes
Zukertort two decades later.  The further history of the World
Championship Matches was as exciting as it was instructive, for
it was generally the case that a new epoch in teaching and style
was established with each new World Champion.  For example, the
next World Champion, Emanuel Lasker (1894-1921), introduced
philosophical and psychological aspects to the game of chess. 
His successor, Capablanca, on the other hand, cultivated a
strictly positional style.  He was regarded as the "invincible
chess machine".  But in 1927 he met his match in Alexander
Alekhine, who played with utterly inexhaustible ideas and placed
the emphasis on attacking.  In 1935 he had to relinquish his
title to the Dutchman Max Euwe but two years later his
convincing play enabled him to win it back again and then hold
it until his death in 1946.

After the Second World War chess was actively promoted in many
countries on account of its important role in social education. 
In terms of chess achievements, the Soviet Union took up a
position of supremacy, from where they dominated World
Championship matches, Olympiads and international tournaments. 
After the break up of the Soviet Union, this position was
bequeathed to the former member states.  With the one exception
of Robert Fischer from the Sunshine State of California on the
west coast of the United States of America (1972-1975), it was
Soviet, or more precisely, Russian players who held the title of
World Champion (Botvinnik, Smyslov, Tal, Petrosian, Spassky,
Karpov, Kasparov).  At least amongst the ladies and the new
generation there are now indications that their reign might be
coming to an end. 

Even today the board game, chess, takes many different forms,
for example Chinese chess.  Nevertheless, there is evidence that
some common criteria have evolved: 

1.   Different pieces, which have a particular value according
to the way
     in which they move.  
2.   Playing surfaces that are characterised by squares or
lines, as 
     required by the different moves the pieces can make.  
3.   Central figures (kings), around which the whole game is
based.  The 
     imminent or actual conquest of these pieces is the aim of
the game.  
4.   An extensive, strategic and tactical way of conducting the
game, that 
     has no element of luck. 


                       Two Prize Games

            5th Blind Correspondence Chess Championship 

Cohn (Great Britain)  -  Winkelmann (Switzerland)
1. e4 e6 2. d4 d5  3. Nc3 Bb4  4. e5 c5 5. a3 Bxc3 6. bxc3 Qc7
7. Qg4 f5  8. Qg3 cxd4  9. cxd4 Ne7  10. Bd2 0-0  11. Bd3 Nbc6
12. Ne2 Bd7  13. 0-0 Kh8? 14. Rab1 Rab8 15. Rb3 Na5 16. Rc3 Qb6
17. Nf4! Nac6 18. Qh4 Qd8 19. Bb5 Rf7 20. Rh3 g6 21. Bxc6 bxc6
22. Bb4 Kg8 23. Bd6 Ra8  24. Rb1 Rg7  25. Qf6 Rf7 26. Nxe6 Qa5
27. Rxh7!! Rxf6   28. Rg7+ Kh8    29. exf6 Bxe6   30. Rxe7 Kg8
31. Rg7+ Kh8 32. Be5 Qxa3 33. h3 Rf8 34. Rbb7 Qc1+ 35. Kh2 Qh6
36. Rge7 f4  37. Rxe6 Qh4  38. f7+ Kh7 39. Kg1 Qg5 40. h4! Qg4
41. Re8 f3 42. Bg3 fxg2 43. Kxg2 Kg7 44. f3 Rxf7 45. Rxf7+ Kxf7
46. fxg4 Kxe8 47. Be1 
     Black resigned!


                   2nd Blind Chess Olympiad

Cabarkapa (Yugoslavia)  -  Kusnierz (Poland)
1. e4 c5 2. Nf3 d6 3. d4 cxd4  4. Nxd4 Nf6 5. Nc3 a6 6. Bg5 e6
7. f4 Be7  8. Qf3 Qc7  9. 0-0-0 Nc6  10. g4 Nxd4  11. Rxd4 e5?
12. Bxf6! gxf6 13. Rd1 b5 14. Nd5 Qa5 15. Bh3 Bd7 16. fxe5 fxe5
17. Nf6+ Kd8 18. Kb1 Be6 19. Nd5 Bxd5 20. Rxd5 Qb6 21. Rf1 Rf8
22. g5! Ke8 23. Qf5 Ra7? 24. Rfd1 Qe3 25. Rxe5+
     Black resigned!


An opening is deemed to be "old" when there is nothing new to be
said about it anymore.  The 200 year-old Ponziani Opening is of
a very respectable age indeed.  Nowadays it is hardly ever
played in tournaments, yet it lives on in the memories of past
successes.  Some think its time has run out, but it is still a
powerful weapon.  In the following game an innovation lends new
momentum to this old opening:

                2nd I.B.C.A. Individual Championship

Ivan Novak (Czechoslovakia)  -  Milos Cabarkapa (Yugoslavia)
     Ermelo 1970
1.   e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. c3
     The opening is based on the principle of a strong centre,
but does
     not take into account time that is lost.
3. - d5
     Theory books judge this move to be the strongest, but Black
can also 
     equalise with 3. - Nf6 or 3. - f5, which is reminiscent of
the Vienna
     Game, and even 3. - Nge7.
4.   Qa4
     White's best move.  Black has several possible moves to
choose from.
     4. f6 - recommended by Steinitz, but analysis by Keres
shows that
     White's position remains more favourable.  Theory
unanimously rejects 
     4. - dxe4.  Caro recommended the pawn sacrifice 4. - Bd7,
but in
     practice there is not much success to be had with this
move.  The pawn
     sacrifice looks right, but with Leonhardt's continuation
4. - Nf6 5. Nxe5 Bd6 6. Nxc6 bxc6 7. d3
     After 7. Qxc6+ Bd7 8. Qa6 dxe4 ... White is admittedly a
pawn up, but
     has fallen behind badly with development.
8. - 0-0 9. Be2
     Keres recommended this move.  He established that after 8.
- Re8 9. 
     Bg5 h6 10. Bxf6 Qxf6, Black has no adequate compensation
for the 
     sacrificed pawn.  Black now tries a new approach.
9. - Qe8
     An interesting move that renders 9. Bg5 - ineffective,
because after 
     9. - dxe4 10. Bxf6 exd! White's position is worse.
9.   Nd2 Rb8 10. 0-0 -
     If White had taken the pawn on a7, the central king
position would 
     have become very dangerous.  
10. -     c5 11. Qc2 Bb7 12. Bf3
     This protects the pawn on e4, but robs the knight on d2 of
a good
     position on f3.  
12. -     Qe5 13. g3 Re8 14. c4?
     White wants to push towards the Black attack by force, but
this is not 
     a good plan. Correct was 14. Bg2 - and then 15. Nf3 -.
14. - dxe4 15. dxe4 Nxe4! 16. Rfe1
     White was confident, but Black is safe.
16. -     f5 17. Rab1 Qf6
     This trap proves itself to be worthwhile as White promptly
falls into
18.  Nxe4 fxe4 19. Bxe4 Rxe4
     White resigned!  If 20. Rxe4 - Black wins with 20. - Qf3! 
     players would not have been able to see any better than
this.  A
     fabulous game.


When should one, and indeed when is one able to, play chess?  It
is important to determine the proper time, in which the powers
of concentration are at their best and no other human
imponderables distract a player from the contemplation, the
deductions and the enjoyment of it all.

First of all it is necessary to define the conditions, which
assist in the outstanding feat of playing a game of chess.  It
should not be too hot.  After all, chess players must keep a
cool head.  It should not be too cold or draughty as this would
put the physical well being of the players at risk, considering
that playing chess does not involve a great deal of movement. 
Hunger can be just as detrimental to a player's performance as
the feeling of being full.  Obviously, playing chess is
completely incompatible with the use of alcohol and any worries
of a professional, private or financial nature can also
interrupt a player's concentration.

Naturally, it is important to wear the right sort of clothing. 
It should be comfortable and airy.  For men, at any rate, it is
critical to bear in mind what Luca Goldoni writes about his
dissension with those who squeeze themselves into blue jeans for
reasons of fashion, and then no longer know how to sit down or
how to arrange their "external reproductive organs".  Similarly
a tight denim skirt is definitely not an ideal piece of clothing
for chess playing ladies.  Fashion and chess simply do not go
together.  Fashion is purely external and can only be a nuisance
to a person who is trying to think, because it has a disruptive
effect on the concentration, as indeed it is designed to.  But
it is neither possible for a handsome, fashionably dressed youth
to impress the lady of the chessboard nor for the opposing king
to be enticed into a mating net by the charms of a beautiful

What is the best time of day?  Mornings?  Definitely not! 
People have to get 'into gear' first.  Apart from that, a person
will no doubt have plans to settle a few affairs during the day
and anything that is waiting to be dealt with will cause a

After lunch?  This is absolutely out of the question because at
that time of day a person needs all his body's resources to
digest their food, a process, which some like to help along by
taking a glass of wine. 

In the late afternoon or evening?  Impossible!  Towards the end
of the day the body begins to slow down, so this cannot be a
suitable time for mental exertions.  Generally speaking, there
is sure to have been something during the day that did not go
quite as well as had been hoped and then a quiet hour is needed,
in which to reflect on what went wrong.

From the criteria specified above it also follows that certain
times of year cannot be connected with chess in any way.  For
example, winter is quite unsuitable because playing rooms are
either too cold or are overheated.  In summer it is usually too
warm, and apart from that, there is hardly anybody who has the
time and the inclination to play chess.  Young people are away
on holiday with their families and older chess players drive
themselves around to various Open events in their own country
and abroad.  No chance.  Spring however, is a really lovely time
of year.  This is undeniably true, but then the question
inevitably arises as to whether you have anything better to do
in spring than to sit hunched over a chessboard computing
combinations of moves.  On top of that there is the worry of
planning the summer holiday.  However, not one single objection
can be raised against autumn.  Autumn is a peaceful season when
nothing disturbs the emotional equilibrium and nothing impedes
concentration on the 64 squares, the contemplation and
deductions.  No chess player would disagree with this.  Yet when
everything is so well-balanced, calm and lacking in stimulation,
when there is absolutely nothing to get annoyed or excited
about, then everybody, including chess players, would prefer to
use this time to take a refreshing nap.  


                          A P P E N D I X 

     The I.B.C.A. Individual World Championships:

I.    1966 Timmendorfer Strand (West Germany) Milos Cabarkapa
... JUG
II.   1970 Ermelo (Netherlands) Milos Cabarkapa
................. JUG
III.  1975 Bad Berleburg  (West Germany) Nikolai Rudensky
....... USSR
IV.   1978 Bruges (Belgium) Sergei Krylov
....................... USSR
V.    1982 Hastings (Great Britain) Sergei Krylov
............... USSR
VI.   1986 Moscow  (USSR) Piotr Dukaczewski
..................... POL
VII.  1990 Wunsiedel  (West Germany)  Sergei Khamdamov
.......... USSR
VIII. 1994 Torrevieja (Spain) Murat Jounoussov
.................. KAZ
IX.   1998 Brno (Czech Republic) S. Smirnov
..................... RUS

I.   1986 Bad Liebenzell  (West Germany)  Teresa Debowska
....... POL
II.  1989 Klimczoke Bjelskobiala (Poland) Lubow Zsiltzowa
....... RUS
III. 1993 La Roda Albacete (Spain) Lubow Zsiltzowa
.............. UKR
IV.  1997 Guadamar near Alicante (Spain) Lubow Zsiltzowa
........ UKR

     The I.B.C.A. Chess Olympiads 

     The first three teams at each Olympiad are listed:
I.    Meschede (West Germany) ..   1.   .... JUG
                                   2.   .... BRD A 
                                   3.   .... AUT
II.   Kühlungsborn (East Germany)  1.   .... JUG
                                   2.   .... HUN
                                   3.   .... DDR
III.  Weymouth (Great Britain)     1.   .... USSR
                                   2.   .... JUG
                                   3.   .... ROM
IV.   Pula (Yugoslavia) ....       1.   .... USSR
                                   2.   .... JUG
                                   3.   .... ROM       
V.    Kuortane (Finland) ....      1.   .... USSR
                                   2.   .... JUG
                                   3.   .... DDR       
VI.   Noordwijkerhout (Holland)    1.   .... USSR
                                   2.   .... JUG
                                   3.   .... DDR       
VII.  Benidorm (Spain) ....        1.   .... USSR
                                   2.   .... JUG
                                   3.   .... POL       
VIII. Zalaegerszeg (Hungary) .     1.   .... USSR
                                   2.   .... JUG
                                   3.   .... HUN       
IX.   Ca'n Picaforte (Spain)       1.   .... RUS 
                                   2.   .... JUG 
                                   3.   .... UKR       
X.    La Laguna (Brazil) ....      1.   .... RUS 
                                   2.   .... UKR 
                                   3.   .... BLA       

    The I.B.C.A. Congresses:
1.  Rheinbreitbach ..... West Germany ....... 12th-16th April
2.  Meschede ........... West Germany .. 28th March-1st April
3.  Kühlungsborn ....... East Germany ............ 29th March
4.  Weymouth ........... Great Britain ............ 7th April
5.  Pula ............... Yugoslavia .............. 11th April
6.  Kuortane ........... Finland ................ 14th August
7.  Nordwijkerhout  .... Holland ................ 17th August
8.  Benidorm ........... Spain ................... 11th April
9.  Zalaegerszeg ....... Hungary ................. 23rd April
10. Ca'n Picaforte ..... Spain ................... 19th April
11. La Laguna .......... Brazil .................... 9th June


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